In order for treatments and prevention of birth trauma and PTSD to develop research is important to provide evidence based material and to support good practice.
*Contained below is research around the cause, impact and definition of birth trauma, PTSD and PND.
Allen, S (1998). A Qualitative Analysis of the Process, Mediating Variables and Impact of Traumatic Childbirth. Journal of Reproductive and Infact Psychology, 16: 107 – 131.
Allen S North N and Elliott P (2005) An investigation of the relationship between PTSD and PND symptoms and factors mediating the development of pTSD following traumatic labour experiences (Paper available from Sarah Sllen Department of Psychology Southampton University SP17 1 BJ)
Ayers S Eagle A Waring H (2006) The effects of childbirth related PTSD on women and their relationship : a qualitative study. Psychol Health Med 2006 Nov 11 (4) 389-98
Ayers, S and Pickering A.D. (2001) Do Women Get Post-traumatic Stress Disorder as a Result of Childbirth? A Prospective Study of Incidence. Birth. 28 (2): 111 – 118
Ayers S (2007) Thoughts and emotions during childbirth: a qualitative study. 34 (3) 253-63
Ballard, C. G. et al (1995) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after Childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry. 166: 525 – 528
Beck, C. T. (2004) Birth Trauma – In the Eye of The Beholder. Nursing Research. 53(1): 28 – 35
Beck, C.T. (2004) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Due To Childbirth – The Aftermath. Nursing Research. 53 (4): 216 – 224
Beck CT (2006) The anniversary of birth trauma; failure to rescue. Nurs Res 2006 Nov-Dec 55(6) 381-90
Born L , Soares (2006) CN, Phillips SD, Jung M, Steiner M Women and reproductive related trauma. Annexe NY Acad Sci 2006 Jul 1071:491-4
Boudou M Sejourne N Chabrol H (2007). Childbirth pain, perinatal dissociation and perinatal distress as predictors of PTS symptoms. Gynec Obstet Fertili Nov 7
Callahan JL, Hynan MT (2002) Identifying mothers at risk for postnatal emotional distress: further evidence for the validity of the perinatal post traumatic stress disorder questionnaire. J Pernatol 2002 Sept 22 (6) 448-54
Church, S and Scanlan, M (2002) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder After Childbirth. The Practising Midwife. 5 (6): 10 -13
Cohen et al (2004) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, Journal of Women’s Health, 13(3): 315 – 324
Creedy, D. K (2000) Childbirth and the Development of Acute Trauma Symptoms: Incidence and Contributing Factors. Birth. 27(2): 104 – 111
Crompton, J (1996) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Childbirth. British Journal of Midwifery.
Czarnocka, J and Slade, P (2000) Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 39: 35-51.
DeMier R.L. (1996) Perinatal Stressors as Predictors of Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress in Mothers of Infants at High Risk Journal of Perinatology. 16 (4): 276 – 280
Emerson, W. R. (1998) Birth Trauma: The Psychological Effects of Obstetrical Interventions, Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology & Health”, 13 (1): 11 – 44
Gamble, J.A. et al (2002) A Review of the Literature on Debriefing or Non-Directive Counselling to Prevent Postpartum Emotional Distress. Midwifery. 18: 72-79
Holditch-Davis, D et al (2003) Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Mothers of Premature Infants. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing (JOGNN), 32 (2): 161 – 171
Hynan, M. T. (1998). The Perinatal Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire (PPQ). In R. W. Wood and C. P. Zalaquette (eds.) Evaluating stress: A handbook of resources, 2: 193-199. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Joseph S Bailham D (2006) Traumatic childbirth: what we know and what we can do. RCM Midwives 2004 Jun 7 (6) 258-61. Also post-traumatic stress following childbirth (2003)
Kennedy, H.P. (2002) Altered Consciousness During Childbirth: Potential Clues to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder? Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 47 (5): 380 – 382.
Menage, J. (1993) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Women Who Have Undergone Obstetric and/or Gynaecological Procedures. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 11: 221-228
Miles, MS, et al. (1992). The stress response of mothers and fathers of preterm infants. Research in Nursing & Health. (15) 261-269.
Nicholls K Ayers S (2007) Childbirth related post traumatic stress disorder in couples; a qualitative study. Br J Health Psychology Nov 2007 12 Pt 4 491-509
Priest SR Henderson J Evans SF Hagan R (2003) Stress debriefing after childbirth: a randomised controlled trial. Med J Aust 2003 Jun 2 178(11) 542-5
Reynolds, J.L. (1997) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Childbirth: the Phenomenon of Traumatic Birth. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 156 (6): 831 – 834
Rowan, C. Bick, D. Basots, M.H.(2007) Postnatal debriefing interventions to prevent maternal mental health problems after birth; exploring the gap between the evidence and UK policy and practice. World views Evid Based Nurs 2007 3 (2) 97-195
Sandstrom M, Wiberg B, Wikman M, Willman AK, Hogbierg U. A pilot study of EMDR for PTSD after childbirth. Midwifery 2007 Jan 12
Soderquist J Wijma K Wijma B (2004) Traumatic stress in late pregnancy. Anxiety Disorders J 2004 18(2) 127-42
Soderquist J Wijma K Wijma B JPsychom (2002) Traumatic stress after childbirth; the role of obstetric variables. 2002 Mar:23 (1) 31-9
Soet, J. E et al (2003) Prevalence and Predictors of Women’s Experience of Psychological Trauma During Childbirth.
Turton, P. et al (2001) Incidence, Correlates and Predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Pregnancy After Stillbirth. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 178: 556-560
Vaiva et al (2003) Immediate Treatment with Propranolol Decreases Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Two Months after Trauma. Biological Psychiatry, 54: 947 – 949
J Psychosom (2004) traumatic stress disorder following pre eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Obstet Gynaecol 2004 Sept – Dec 25 (3-4) 183-7
Wijma, K. et al (1997) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder After Childbirth: A Cross Sectional Study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 11 (6): 587 – 597
Birth Trauma: Definition and Statistics – by Penny Simkin, PT, PATTCh Founder
Nice guidelines ;
*some courtesy of Birth trauma association